Thermophysics and Temperature Control of Spacecraft and Entry Vehicles

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Active control of multifrequency helicopter vibrations using discrete model predictive sliding mode control Lu, Y. Pages: — Keywords: Helicopter,vibration,active control of structural response,multifrequency control,sliding mode control,model predictive control Abstract. A novel adaptive control scheme with model-based error compensation for a prototype unmanned helicopter Sheng, S. Pages: — Keywords: Adaptive control,error compensation,tracking control,unmanned helicopter,flight test Abstract.

Modeling of aluminum particle ignition behavior in open atmosphere rocket propellant fires Yilmaz, N. Pages: — Keywords: Modeling,computational fluid dynamics,aluminum,rocket propellant,fires Abstract. The attitude estimation of three-axis stabilized satellites using hybrid particle swarm optimization combined with radar cross section precise prediction Zhong, W.

Pages: — Keywords: Attitude estimation,hybrid particle swarm optimization,multi-phase particle swarm optimization,fast multipole method Abstract. Adaptive fault-tolerant control of reentry vehicle considering actuator and sensor faults based on trajectory optimization Ming-Zhou, G. Pages: — Keywords: Reentry vehicle,adaptive fault-tolerant control,actuator and sensor faults,trajectory optimization,computational fluid dynamics Abstract. Improved multiple model target tracking algorithm based on particle filter Chen, Z.

Pages: — Keywords: Particle filter,target tracking,resampling,tracking model Abstract. Stationkeeping strategy for quasi-periodic orbit around earth-moon l2 point Qian, Y. Pages: — Keywords: Libration point,quasi-periodic orbit,Earth—Moon—Sun—space craft,four-body model,stationkeeping,Gauss pseudospectral method Abstract.

A few issues have been released since the last time our newsletter wrote about this journal sponsored by the International Academy of Astronautics. The toc at the time of this writing is reported below for your convenience.

A satellite formation flying approach providing both positioning and tracking Nurge, Mark A. Pages: 1—9 Keywords: Spacecraft formation flying; Satellite swarms; Satellite propulsion; Satellite tracking; Satellite positioning Abstract. In-orbit offline estimation of the residual magnetic dipole biases of the popsat-hip1 nanosatellite Seriani, S. Ranking upper stages in low earth orbit for active removal Anselmo, L. Experimental study on combustion modes and thrust performance of a staged-combustor of the scramjet with dual-strut Yang, Qingchun and Chetehouna, Khaled and Gascoin, Nicolas and Bao, Wen Pages: 28—34 Keywords: Staged-combustor; Injection scheme; Combustion mode; Thrust performance; Dual-mode scramjet Abstract.

A stereo-vision hazard-detection algorithm to increase planetary lander autonomy Woicke, Svenja and Mooij, Erwin Pages: 42—62 Keywords: Hazard detection; Hazard avoidance; Planetary landings; Terrain mapping; Landing autonomy Abstract. Covariance study to evaluate the influence of optical follow-up strategies on estimated orbital parameters Cordelli, E. Suboptimal lqr-based spacecraft full motion control: theory and experimentation Guarnaccia, Leone and Bevilacqua, Riccardo and Pastorelli, Stefano P.

Transient three-dimensional side-loads analysis of a thrust-optimized parabolic nozzle during staging Jia, Ruyan and Jiang, Zhenyu and Zhang, Weihua Pages: — Keywords: Stage separation; Thrust-optimized parabolic nozzle; Nozzle flow separation; Nozzle side loads; Numerical simulation Abstract. Finite-time output feedback attitude coordination control for formation flying spacecraft without unwinding Guo, Yong and Song, Shen-Min and Li, Xue-Hui Pages: — Keywords: Finite-time stability; Attitude coordination control; Rotation matrix; Homogeneous method; Output feedback control Abstract.

Autonomous robotic capture of non-cooperative target by adaptive extended kalman filter based visual servo Dong, Gangqi and Zhu, Zheng H. Design and test of a semiandrogynous docking mechanism for small satellites Olivieri, Lorenzo and Francesconi, Alessandro Pages: — Keywords: Docking; Small satellites; Androgyny Abstract. Full-genome study of gene expression in lumbar spinal cord of mice after day space flight on bion-m1 biosatellite Islamov, R. Pages: — Keywords: Abstract. Response of saos-2 cells to simulated microgravity and effect of biocompatible sol—gel hybrid coatings Catauro, M.

References

We dutifully pass on the information. One of our readers is pointing out that this is shaping as a big year for Virtual Reality, at least from a consumer perspective, see for example this article here. What we as scientific community hope to gain from this consumer VR r evolution is a similar effect to the one seen for the evolution of graphic cards for games that has led to the development of GPGPU computing.

GPGPU computing is not the panacea for all kind of simulations, but with ever more increasingly powerful GPGPU units, and, most importantly, with rethinking the problems in increasingly distributed and parallel terms, the speed-up that can be obtained are more and more difficult to ignore.

GPGPU acceleration is available for many kind of scientific software, both in closed and open source variants, and it is an area of extremely active research that is bringing fruitful advancements. See on the topic a relatively old but still interesting presentation of Nvidia a key player in the market here.

What can be the side-benefits of the VR r evolution? It is easy to imagine that manufacturing, designing and drawing could benefit immensely from a more immersive technique. Scientific visualization could evolve beyond cave like environments and already many researchers and developers are exploring ways to exploit the new hardware and software that will soon be available in the coming months. It is difficult to know in advance if this time the announced "revolution" will have success. Sometimes new technologies trumpeted as revolutionary have an abysmal success think of 3D televisions.

What experts think will make or break this new vague of VR devices are spatial audio think Head Related Transfer Function audio , latency , spatial tracking and most importantly, applications, and, probably, games. After all, already in , the gaming industry was bigger then Hollywood. Since patents can be filed towards different organizations, sometimes the data available in the EPO database the version available for free online is not the most complete. In that case an external link is used for example the first item in this list.

Here we will be using the EPO Patent information services for experts, from this address. The definition of A1 and A2 are available here. Words From The Editor Dear Colleague, is well underway and this is the second newsletter to date. JP Taran This email address is being protected from spambots. Applied Mathematics Thermal mathematical model correlation through genetic algorithms of an experiment conducted on board the international space station Fluid Mechanics Investigation of a wake decay behind a circular disk in a hydro channel at high reynolds numbers Turbulent mixing of small-obstacle-induced perturbations with the separated shear layer behind a backward-facing step Separated flow behind a backward-facing step under a stationary temperature disturbance The pulsating laminar flow in a rectangular channel Correlation algorithm for computing the velocity fields in microchannel flows with high resolution Effects of pitch, yaw, and roll on delta wing skin friction topology Study of the quasi-static motion of a droplet expelled from a pipe in microgravity Thermophysics and Aeromechanics Gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet.

Pages: — Keywords: free-stream flow turbulence level, wake flow past a body, Abstract Gas dynamics of a supersonic radial jet. Pages: — Keywords: cold spraying, pressure profile, supersonic radial jet, Abstract Turbulent mixing of small-obstacle-induced perturbations with the separated shear layer behind a backward-facing step Dyachenko, A.

What Is The Temperature in a Vacuum Chamber? Is it Hot, Cold or Neither?

Pages: — Keywords: backward-facing step, turbulent separated flow, Abstract Separated flow behind a backward-facing step under a stationary temperature disturbance Boiko, A. Pages: — Keywords: hydrodynamic instability, laminar flow separation, separation control, temperature perturbation, Abstract Experimental investigation of the temperature field in the gas-liquid two-layer system Gatapova, E.

Pages: — Keywords: evaporation, liquid-gas interface, microthermocouple, temperature jump, Abstract Enhancement of transient heat transfer at boiling on a plate surface with low thermoconductive coatings Tsoi, A.

Thermophysics And Temperature Control Of Spacecraft And Entry Vehicles

Pages: — Keywords: cooling rate, film boiling, heat transfer coefficient, liquid nitrogen, low thermoconducting coating, nucleate boiling, transient heat transfer, Abstract Boiling heat transfer of refrigerant r in upward flow in plate-fin heat exchanger Kuznetsov, V. Pages: — Keywords: heat transfer in boiling, plate-fin heat exchanger, refrigerant R, upward flow, Abstract Evaluation of optimal thermal-hydraulic characteristics ratio in microchannel heat exchangers Garyaev, A. Pages: — Keywords: microchannel heat exchangers, microchannels, optimization of thermal and hydraulic characteristics, Abstract The pulsating laminar flow in a rectangular channel Valueva, E.

Pages: — Keywords: hydrodynamics, pulsation laminar flow, Abstract Correlation algorithm for computing the velocity fields in microchannel flows with high resolution Karchevskiy, M. Pages: — Keywords: microchannel, micro-PIV, Particle Image Velocimetry, Single Pixel Resolution, velocity field, velocity fluctuations, Abstract Regenerative heat exchanger with a periodic change in the airflow direction for room ventilation Nizovtsev, M. Pages: — Keywords: air-to-air heat exchanger, energy efficient ventilation, regenerative packing, Abstract On the determination of the position of laminar-turbulent transition in boundary layer by optical methods Bountin, D.

Pages: — Keywords: laminar-turbulent transition, optical flow diagnostics methods, Abstract Experimental investigation of liquid drop evaporation on a heated solid surface Semenov, A. Pages: — Keywords: contact angle, evaporation, three-phase contact line, Abstract Investigation of thermal plasma generator of technological function Anshakov, A. Pages: — Keywords: arc discharge, current-voltage arc characteristics, electrode lifetime, heat losses, plasmatorch, Abstract 75th Anniversary of Vasiliy M.

Pages: — Keywords: Ship defense missile,optimal guidance law,radio frequency seeker,strapdown imaging infrared seeker,field of view constraint,multipath Abstract Deployment analysis and optimization of a flexible deployable structure for large synthetic aperture radar antennas Wang, Y. Pages: — Keywords: Large synthetic aperture radar antenna,deployable structure,deployment experiment,flexible dynamics,optimization design Abstract Simplified compound suction schemes of an aspirated highly loaded compressor cascade Guo, S.

The power output range of solar thermal systems is expected to be one hundred to perhaps several hundred kilowatts. While in principle these power systems can be expanded into the megawatt region, the prohibitive demands for collection area and lift capacity would appear to rule out such expansion. Megawatt and multimegawatt nuclear power reactors adapted for the space environment appear to offer a logical alternative.

In this paper, I deal only with the burdens these three types of power system will place on the heat management system. Solar photovoltaics themselves will not burden the power generating system with a direct heat rejection requirement, since the low energy density of the system requires such a great collection area that ii allows rejection of waste radiant energy. However, if these systems are to be employed in lo- Earth orbit or on a nonterrestrial surface, then a large amount of energy storage equipment will be required to ensure a continuous supply of power as the devices, not collect energy at night.

And the round-trip inefficiencies of even the best energy storage system today will require that a large fraction -perhaps 25 percent-o the electrical power generated must be dissipated as waste heat and at low temperatures. Solar thermal systems, which include a solar concentrator and a dynamic energy conversion system, are presumed to operate at relatively high temperatures between and K.

The efficiencies of the energy conversion system will lie in the range of 15 to perhaps 30 percent. Therefore we must consider rejecting between 70 and 85 percent of the energy collected. In general, the lower the thermal efficiency, the higher the rejection temperature and the smaller the radiating area required. As with solar photovoltaic systems, the inefficiencies of the energy storage system will have to be faced by the heat rejection system, unless high temperature thermal storage is elected.

The current concepts for nuclear power generating systems involve reactors working with relatively low efficiency energy conversion systems which reject virtually all of the usable heat of the reactor but at a relatively high temperature. Despite the burdens that this low efficiency places on nuclear fuel use, the energy density of nuclear systems is so high that the fuel use factor is not expected to be significant. In all of these systems the output power used by the production system in environmental control and manufacturing except for a small fraction which might be stored as endothermic heat in the manufactured product will have to be rejected at temperatures approaching K.

I think it fair to state that, in many of the sketches of space industrial plants I have seen, the power system is little more than a cartoon because it lacks sufficient detail to address the problem of thermal management. We must learn to maintain an acceptable thermal environment, because it is expected to become a dominant engineering consideration in a complex factory and habitat infrastructure. As an example of the severity of this problem, let us examine the case of a simple nuclear power plant whose energy conversion efficiency from thermal to electric is approximately 10 percent.

The plant is to generate kW of useful electricity. The reactor operates at approximately K, and a radiator with emissivity equal to 0. The thermal power to be dissipated from the reactor would be about 1 MW. From the Stefan Boltzmann Law, the area of the radiator would be about 50 m 2 and the mass approximately kg. This seems quite reasonable. However, we must assume that the electricity generated by the power plant, which goes into life support systems and small-scale manufacturing, would eventually have to be dissipated also, but at a much lower temperature around K.

Using the Stefan-Boltzmann law [Stefan-Boltzmann Equation] Therefore, we can see that the dominant heat rejection problem is not that of the primary power plant but that of the energy that is used in life support and manufacturing, which must be rejected at low temperatures. Using the waste heat from the nuclear power plant for processing may be effective.

But, ironically, doing so will in turn require more radiator surface to radiate the lower temperature waste heat. Heat Rejection Systems In this section I will deal with systems designed to meet the heat rejection requirements of power generation and utilization.


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These heat rejection systems may be broadly classified as passive or active, armored or unarmored. Each is expected to play a role in future space systems, Heat pipes: The first of these, called the "heat pipe," is conventionally considered the base system against which all others are judged. It has the significant advantage of being completely passive, with no moving parts, which makes it exceptionally suitable for use in the space environment. For the convenience of the reader, I will briefly describe the operational mechanism of the basic heat pipe.

See figure 36 [Components and Principle of conventional Heat Pipe]. The heat pipe is a thin, hollow tube filled with a fluid specific to the temperature range at which it is to operate. At the hot end, the fluid is in the vapor phase and attempts to fill the tube, passing through the tube toward the cold end, where it gradually condenses into the liquid phase. The walls of the tube, or appropriate channels grooved into the tube, are filled with a wick-like material which returns the fluid by surface tension to the hot end, where it is revaporized and recirculated.

Essentially the system is a small vapor cycle which uses the temperature difference between the hot and cold ends of the tube as a pump to transport heat, taking full advantage of the heat of vaporization of the particular fluid. The fluid must be carefully selected to match the temperature range of operation. For example, at very high temperatures a metallic substance with a relatively high vaporization temperature, such as sodium or potassium, may be used. However, this choice puts a constraint on the low temperature end since, if the fluid freezes into a solid at the low temperature end, operation would cease until the relatively inefficient conduction of heat along the walls could melt it.

At low temperatures a fluid with a low vaporization temperature, such as ammonia, might well be used, with similar constraints. The temperature may not be so high as to dissociate the ammonia at the hot end or so low as to freeze the ammonia at the cold end. With proper design, heat pipes are an appropriate and convenient tool for thermal management in space systems. For example, at modest temperatures, the heat pipe could be made of aluminum, because of its relatively low density and high strength.

Fins could be added to the heat pipe to increase its heat dissipation area. The aluminum, in order to be useful, must be thin enough to reduce the mass carried into space yet thick enough to offer reasonable resistance to meteoroid strikes. At higher temperatures, where refractory metals are needed, it would be necessary to multiply the mass of the radiator per square meter by at least a factor of 3.

Nevertheless, from K up to perhaps K, the heat pipe radiator is still a very efficient method of rejecting heat. A further advantage is that each heat pipe unit is a self-contained machine. Thus, the puncture of one unit does not constitute a single-point failure that would affect the performance of the whole system. Failures tend to be slow and graceful, provided sufficient redundancy.

Pump loop system : The pump loop system has many of the same advantages and is bounded by many of the same limitations associated with the heat pipe radiator. Here heat is collected through a system of fluid loops and pumped into a radiator system similar to conventional radiators used on Earth. It should be pointed out that in the Earth environment the radiator actually radiates very little heat; it is designed to convect its heat.

The best known examples of the pump loop system currently used in space are the heat rejection radiators used in the Shuttle. These are the inner structure of the clamshell doors which are deployed when the doors are opened fig. Pump loop systems have a unique advantage in that the thermal control system can easily be integrated into a spacecraft or space factory. The heat is picked up by conventional heat exchangers within the spacecraft, the carrier fluid is pumped through a complex system of pipes extended by fins when deemed effective , and finally the carrier is returned in liquid phase through the spacecraft.

In the case of the Shuttle, where the missions are short, additional thermal control is obtained by deliberately dumping fluid. Since the system is designed to operate at low temperatures, a low density fluid, such as ammonia, may on occasion, depending on heat loading, undergo a phase change. Boiling heat transfer in a low gravity environment is a complex phenomenon, which is not well understood at the present time. Because the system is subjected to meteoroid impact, the basic primary pump loops must be strongly protected.

Despite these drawbacks, pump loop systems will probably be used in conjunction with heat pipe systems as thermal control engineers create a viable space environment. These armored closed systems are rather highly developed and amenable to engineering analysis.

Predictions of the Total Emissivity of Metals at Cryogenic Temperatures

They have already found application on Earth and in space. A strong technology base has been built up, and there exists a rich literature for the scientist-engineer to draw on in deriving new concepts. Advanced Radiator Concepts The very nature of the problems just discussed has led to increased efforts on the part of the thermal management community to examine innovative approaches which offer the potential of increased performance and, in many cases, relative invulnerability to meteoroid strikes.

Although I cannot discuss all of these new approaches, I will briefly describe some of the approaches under study as examples of the direction Of current thinking. Improved conventional approaches : The continuing search for ways to improve the performance of heat Pipes has already shown that significant improvements in the heat Pumping capacity of the heat pipe can be made by clever modifications to the return wick loop.

Looking further downtime at the problem of deployability, people are exploring flexible heat pipes and using innovative thinking. For example, a recent design has the heat pipes collapsing into a sheet as they are rolled up, the same way a toothpaste tube does. Thus, the whole ensemble may be rolled up into a relatively tight bundle for storing and deploying.

Thermophysics And Temperature Control Of Spacecraft And Entry Vehicles

However, because the thinwalled pipes are relatively fragile and easily punctured by meteoroids, more redundancy must be provided. The same principles, of course, can be applied to a pump loop system and may be of particular importance when storage limits must be considered. These are only examples of the various approaches taken, and we may confidently expect a steady improvement in the capability of conventional thermal management systems.

The liquid droplet radiator : The basic concept of the liquid droplet radiator is to replace a solid surface radiator by a controlled stream of droplets. The droplets are sprayed across a region in which they radiate their heat; then they are recycled to the hotter part of the system. See figure 38 [Two concepts for a liquid Droplet Radiator]. It was demonstrated some time ago that liquid droplets with very small diameters about micrometers are easily manufactured and offer a power-to-mass advantage over solid surface radiators of between 10 and In effect, large, very thin radiator sheets can be produced by the proper dispersion of the droplets.

This system offers the potential of being developed into an ultralightweight radiator that, since the liquid can be stored in bulk, is also very compact. The potential advantages of the liquid droplet radiator can be seen if we consider again the problem that was discussed at the end of the section on heat pipe radiators. We found that a very good aluminum radiator would require m 2 and have a mass of nearly kg to radiate the low temperature waste heat from lunar processing.

Using the properties of a liquid droplet radiator and a low density, low vapor pressure fluid such as Dow-Corning , a common vacuum oil, we find that, for the same area which implies the same emissivity , the mass of the radiating fluid is only 24 kg. Even allowing a factor of 4 for the ancillary equipment required to operate this system, the mass of the radiator is still less than kg. To achieve efficiency, the designer is required to frame the radiator in a lightweight deployable structure and to provide a means of aiming the droplets precisely so that they can be captured and returned to the system.

However, present indications are that the droplet accuracies required milliradians are easily met by available technology. Recently, successful droplet capture in simulated 0 g conditions has been adequately demonstrated. An advantage of a liquid droplet radiator is that even a relatively large sheet of such droplets is essentially invulnerable to micrometeoroids, since a striking micrometeoroid can remove at most only a few drops. The reader may be concerned that the very large surface area of the liquid will lead to immediate evaporation.

However, liquids have recently been found that in the range of to K have a vapor pressure so low that the evaporation loss during the normal lifetime of a space system possibly as long as 30 years will be only a small fraction of the total mass of the radiator. Thus, the liquid droplet radiator appears promising, particularly as a low temperature system where a large radiator is required. Liquid droplet radiators for applications other than 0 g have been suggested.