The Wiley Handbook on the Cognitive Neuroscience of Memory

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The Wiley handbook on the cognitive neuroscience of memory.

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Series Wiley handbooks in cognitive neuroscience. Online Available online.

Science Library Li and Ma. W55 Unknown. More options. Find it at other libraries via WorldCat Limited preview. Contributor Addis, Donna Rose, editor.


Barense, Morgan, editor. Duarte, Audrey, editor. Bibliography Includes bibliographical references and index. Ryals and Joel L. Rogers and Christopher R. Rugg, Jeffrey D. These damages change the neural circuits in the brain and cause it to malfunction during basic cognitive processes, such as memory or learning. With the damage, we can compare how the healthy neural circuits are functioning, and possibly draw conclusions about the basis of the affected cognitive processes.

Also, cognitive abilities based on brain development are studied and examined under the subfield of developmental cognitive neuroscience.

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This shows brain development over time, analyzing differences and concocting possible reasons for those differences. Theoretical approaches include computational neuroscience and cognitive psychology. Cognitive neuroscience is an interdisciplinary area of study that has emerged from neuroscience and psychology. Although the task of cognitive neuroscience is to describe how the brain creates the mind, historically it has progressed by investigating how a certain area of the brain supports a given mental faculty. However, early efforts to subdivide the brain proved to be problematic. The phrenologist movement failed to supply a scientific basis for its theories and has since been rejected.

Philosophers have always been interested in the mind: "the idea that explaining a phenomenon involves understanding the mechanism responsible for it has deep roots in the History of Philosophy from atomic theories in 5th century B. It has been suggested that the first person to believe otherwise was the Roman physician Galen in the second century AD, who declared that the brain was the source of mental activity, [8] although this has also been accredited to Alcmaeon.

Andreas Vesalius , an anatomist and physician, was the first to believe that the brain and the nervous system are the center of the mind and emotion. One of the predecessors to cognitive neuroscience was phrenology , a pseudoscientific approach that claimed that behavior could be determined by the shape of the scalp.

In the early 19th century, Franz Joseph Gall and J. Spurzheim believed that the human brain was localized into approximately 35 different sections.

In his book, The Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System in General, and of the Brain in Particular, Gall claimed that a larger bump in one of these areas meant that that area of the brain was used more frequently by that person. This theory gained significant public attention, leading to the publication of phrenology journals and the creation of phrenometers, which measured the bumps on a human subject's head. While phrenology remained a fixture at fairs and carnivals, it did not enjoy wide acceptance within the scientific community.

The localizationist view was concerned with mental abilities being localized to specific areas of the brain rather than on what the characteristics of the abilities were and how to measure them.

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Jackson studied patients with brain damage , particularly those with epilepsy. He discovered that the epileptic patients often made the same clonic and tonic movements of muscle during their seizures, leading Jackson to believe that they must be occurring in the same place every time. Jackson proposed that specific functions were localized to specific areas of the brain, [13] which was critical to future understanding of the brain lobes.

According to the aggregate field view, all areas of the brain participate in every mental function. Pierre Flourens , a French experimental psychologist, challenged the localizationist view by using animal experiments. From this he concluded that the cerebral cortex , cerebellum , and brainstem functioned together as a whole.

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Perhaps the first serious attempts to localize mental functions to specific locations in the brain was by Broca and Wernicke. This was mostly achieved by studying the effects of injuries to different parts of the brain on psychological functions. The man could only produce the sound "tan". It was later discovered that the man had damage to an area of his left frontal lobe now known as Broca's area. Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist , found a patient who could speak fluently but non-sensibly.

The patient had been the victim of a stroke , and could not understand spoken or written language. This patient had a lesion in the area where the left parietal and temporal lobes meet, now known as Wernicke's area. These cases, which suggested that lesions caused specific behavioral changes, strongly supported the localizationist view. In , German physicians Eduard Hitzig and Gustav Fritsch published their findings about the behavior of animals.

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Hitzig and Fritsch ran an electric current through the cerebral cortex of a dog, causing different muscles to contract depending on which areas of the brain were electrically stimulated. This led to the proposition that individual functions are localized to specific areas of the brain rather than the cerebrum as a whole, as the aggregate field view suggests.

At the start of the 20th century, attitudes in America were characterised by pragmatism, which led to a preference for behaviorism as the primary approach in psychology. Watson was a key figure with his stimulus-response approach. By conducting experiments on animals he was aiming to be able to predict and control behaviour.

Behaviourism eventually failed because it could not provide realistic psychology of human action and thought — it focused primarily on stimulus-response associations at the expense of explaining phenomena like thought and imagination. This led to what is often termed as the "cognitive revolution".

Golgi developed a silver staining method that could entirely stain several cells in a particular area, leading him to believe that neurons were directly connected with each other in one cytoplasm. Cajal challenged this view after staining areas of the brain that had less myelin and discovering that neurons were discrete cells. Liang and Alison R. Dennis, Caitlin R. Bowman, and Indira C. Martin, Chris M. Fiacconi, and Stefan Kohler.

Chambers and Jessica D. Jacques and Felipe De Brigard. McLelland, Daniel L. Schacter, and Donna Rose Addis. Giovanello and Ilana T. Kensinger and Angela Gutchess. Miller and Kylie A. Help Centre. Track My Order. My Wishlist Sign In Join.

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