The Sclera

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Dogs do not seem to use this form of communication with one another and only look for visual information from the eyes of humans. The bony area that makes up the human eye socket provides exceptional protection to the sclera.

Overview of Conjunctival and Scleral Disorders

However, if the sclera is ruptured by a blunt force or is penetrated by a sharp object, the recovery of full former vision is usually rare. If pressure is applied slowly, the eye is actually very elastic. However, most ruptures involve objects moving at some velocity. The cushion of orbital fat protects the sclera from head-on blunt forces, but damage from oblique forces striking the eye from the side is not prevented by this cushion.

Eye Anatomy

Hemorrhaging and a dramatic drop in intraocular pressure are common, along with a reduction in visual perception to only broad hand movements and the presence or absence of light. However, low-velocity injury which does not puncture and penetrate the sclera requires only superficial treatment and the removal of the object. Sufficiently small objects which become embedded and which are subsequently left untreated may eventually become surrounded by a benign cyst , causing no other damage or discomfort.

The sclera is rarely damaged by brief exposure to heat: the eyelids provide exceptional protection, and the fact that the sclera is covered in layers of moist tissue means that these tissues are able to cause much of the offending heat to become dissipated as steam before the sclera itself is damaged. Even relatively low-temperature molten metals when splashed against an open eye have been shown to cause very little damage to the sclera, even while creating detailed casts of the surrounding eyelashes. Such long exposures even in industrial settings are virtually nonexistent.

Diseases of the inner eye

The sclera is highly resistant to injury from brief exposure to toxic chemicals. The reflexive production of tears at the onset of chemical exposure tends to quickly wash away such irritants, preventing further harm. Acids with a pH below 2.


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However, acid burns, even severe ones, seldom result in loss of the eye. Alkali burns, on the other hand, such as those resulting from exposure to ammonium hydroxide or ammonium chloride or other chemicals with a pH above Yellowing of the sclera is a visual symptom of jaundice.

The sclera and myopia.

In very rare but severe cases of kidney failure and liver failure, the sclera may turn black. In cases of Osteogenesis Imperfecta , the sclera may appear to have a blue tint.

The blue tint is caused by the showing of the Chorodial Veins. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sclera The sclera, as separated from the cornea by the corneal limbus.

Jake Whalen: Living and Coping with Keratoconus

Goat eye with relatively dark sclera and horizontal pupil. Cow eye with dark sclera. Dictionary of Eye Terminology. Gainesville, Florida: Triad Publishing Company, Archived from the original PDF on The fluid flows out through the pupil.

What is a pinguecula? Yellow spot on eye - A State of Sight #49

This drainage system is a meshwork of drainage canals around the outer edge of the iris. Proper drainage helps keep eye pressure at a normal level. The production, flow, and drainage of this fluid is an active continuous process that is needed for the health of the eye. The inner pressure of the eye intraocular pressure or IOP depends upon the amount of fluid in the eye. Your IOP can vary at different times of the day, but it normally stays within a range that the eye can handle.

As the fluid builds up, it causes pressure to build within the eye. High pressure damages the sensitive optic nerve and results in vision loss. You have millions of nerve fibers that run from your retina to the optic nerve.

1. Tear Layer

These fibers meet at the optic disc. As fluid pressure within your eye increases, it damages these sensitive nerve fibers and they begin to die. As they die, the disc begins to hollow and develops a cupped or curved shape. If the pressure remains too high for too long, the extra pressure can damage the optic nerve and result in vision loss. It was once thought that high intraocular pressure IOP was the main cause of this optic nerve damage.

Aqueous humor is the clear, watery fluid that is continually produced inside the eye. It is different from your tears. Tears are produced by glands outside of the eye and moisten the outer surface of the eyeball. The episclera contains tiny blood vessels that supply nutrients to the sclera.

Sometimes the episclera becomes inflamed episcleritis. Merck and Co. From developing new therapies that treat and prevent disease to helping people in need, we are committed to improving health and well-being around the world. The Manual was first published in as a service to the community.

Learn more about our commitment to Global Medical Knowledge. Common Health Topics. Courtesy of. Test your knowledge. Which of the following is the most common cause of eye floaters?