Nanostructures: Theory and Modeling (NanoScience and Technology)

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Nanoscale Science and Engineering Courses - University at Albany-SUNY

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Nanostructures: Theory and Modelling

In November , some of the world's best nanoscientists and nanoengineers met at the Banff Centre, where the Banff International Research Station hosted a workshop on recent developments in the mathematical study of the physics of nanomaterials and nanostructures. The Banff International Research Station for Mathematical Innovation and Discovery BIRS is a collaborative Canada—US—Mexico venture that provides an environment for creative interaction as well as the exchange of ideas, knowledge, and methods within the Mathematical Sciences, with related disciplines and with industry.

Nanotechnology is the study and application of phenomena at or below the dimensions of nm and has received a lot of public attention following popular accounts such as in the bestselling book by Michael Crichton, Prey. It is an area where fundamental questions of applied mathematics and mathematical physics, design of computational methodologies, physical insight, engineering and experimental techniques are meeting together in a quest for an adequate description of nanomaterials and nanostructures for applications in optoelectronics, medicine, energy-saving, bio- and other key technologies which will profoundly influence our life in the 21st century and beyond.

There are already hundreds of applications in daily life such as in cosmetics and the hard drives in MP3 players the Nobel prize in physics was recently awarded for the science that allowed the miniaturization of the drives , delivering drugs, high-definition DVD players and stain-resistant clothing, but with thousands more anticipated. The focus of this interdisciplinary workshop was on determining what kind of new theoretical and computational tools will be needed to advance the science and engineering of nanomaterials and nanostructures.

Thanks to the stimulating environment of the BIRS, participants of the workshop had plenty of opportunity to exchange new ideas on one of the main topics of this workshop—physics-based mathematical models for the description of low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures LDSNs that are becoming increasingly important in technological innovations.

The main objective of the workshop was to bring together some of the world leading experts in the field from each of the key research communities working on different aspects of LDSNs in order to a summarize the state-of-the-art models and computational techniques for modeling LDSNs, b identify critical problems of major importance that require solution and prioritize them, c analyze feasibility of existing mathematical and computational methodologies for the solution of some such problems, and d use some of the workshop working sessions to explore promising approaches in addressing identified challenges.

With the possibility of growing practically any shape and size of heterostructures, it becomes essential to understand the mathematical properties of quantum-confined structures including properties of bulk states, interface states, and surface states as a function of shape, size, and internal strain. This workshop put strong emphasis on discussions of the new mathematics needed in nanotechnology especially in relation to geometry and material-combination optimization of device properties such as electronic, optical, and magnetic properties. The problems that were addressed at this meeting are of immense importance in determining such quantum-mechanical properties and the group of invited participants covered very well all the relevant disciplines in the cross-disciplinary research area: low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures.

Since the main properties of two-dimensional heterostructures such as quantum wells are now quite well understood, there has been a consistently growing interest in the mathematical physics community to further dimensionality reduction of semiconductor structures. Experimental achievements in realizing one-dimensional and quasi-zero-dimensional heterostructures have opened new opportunities for theory and applications of such low-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures.

One of the most important implications of this process has been a critical re-examining of assumptions under which traditional quantum mechanical models have been derived in this field. It will expose the mains tools and concepts of quantum technologies, for students curious about this intriguing topic, whether they envisage embarking on a PhD, or they just want to acquire a scientific background in this domain.

Content: Basics of quantum optics and light-matter interaction will be presented. General concepts relevant for quantum information, e. Goal: This lecture introduces the light-matter interaction in semiconductor microstructures and metallic nanostructures. These objects allow tailoring and localizing the field distribution and polarization even at a subwavelength scale and can be used to boost the light-matter interaction with quantum emitters including absorption, spontaneous and stimulated emission.

Amazing effects such as enhancement or inhibition of spontaneous emission, nonlinear effects down to the single photon level have been demonstated. This paves the way to new generation of optoelectronic devices like single photon sources, quantum optical gates, nanoscale optical modulators, ultrasensitive sensors, etc.

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Electrodynamics of metals: Application of Maxwell's equation in matter to the case of metals; relation between the conductivity and optical dielectric constant. Drude model of the conductivity and metals in real life. Surface plasmon polaritons. Extension to multilayer systems. Nanostructure for coupling and guiding SPPs. Review of the possible strategies for launching and guiding surface plasmon-polaritons.

Localized surface plasmons. Using the spherical particles, the main properties of plasmonics resonances in nanostructures will be introduced enhancement, near-field, scattering and absorption cross sections…. Optical process exaltation by plasmons. Goal: This lecture is an introduction to the field of nanomagnetism, also providing basic ideas in spin electronics. The continuous progress in patterning, instrumentation and simulation over the past decades has made possible the investigation of low-dimensional magnetic elements such as thin films and nanostructures.

New properties arise in these due to the reduction of dimensionality and the ability to built artificial stackings. Beyond the development of fundamental knowledge, these bring new functionalities of interest for technology. Such is the case for Giant Magneto-Resistance, an effect combining together electronics and magnetism, as the resistance of a stacked device may strongly depend on the arrangement of magnetization in the sub-stacks.

It was discovered in the mid 80's and led to the Nobel prize in Physics in , and enters many applications such as magnetic sensors and encoders, data storage and processing, bio- and heath devices. Grenoble has played an active role in the development and magnetism from fundamentals to permanent magnets and currently spin electronics. Prerequisites: Knowledge in Electrodynamics, Statistical physics, basic mathematical skills. Goal: This course is at the crossroad between two scientific and technological domains: energy and nanomaterials.

Both domains are rich in innovations, challenges and opportunities. For instance, among other sustainable green energy technologies, solar energy is still developed to offer an alternative to fossil fuel energy, with efforts devoted to cost reduction, efficiency improvement and use of abundant materials.

We will see how nanomaterials can help improving performance of devices related to energy, in very different domains solar energy, building, energy storage….

Quantum Size Effect And Features of Nano-Technology Materials

The course will first deal with the contexts linked with energies and nano-materials. The synthesis, characterization and main properties of nanomaterials will be presented. Applications will deal with solar energy and nanomaterials, other energy production and nanomaterials, energy storage and finally nanomaterials and energy in buildings.

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This course will be presented by different scientists aiming at presenting physical and chemical aspects of nanomaterials, as well as with complementary approaches such as fundamental, experimental and applied ones. In addition to basic concepts many illustrations and challenges still persisting will be briefly presented during the whole course.

Chapter 4 — Other energy conversion technologies and nanomaterials 4 hours 4. Chapitre 5 — Energy storage 4 hours Why and how storing energy? Hydroelectricity, hydrogen, electrochemical storage… Storage of energy and nanomaterials; ongoing researches and challenges. Chapitre 6 — Nano-materials and energy in buildings 2 hours Physics and use of nanomaterials in devices used in buildings: lightning LED, OLED , smart windows, energy harvesting, building insulation very high insulators etc….

Goal: The aim of the course is to introduce the concepts, methods and tools required to model the physical properties of nanoscopic systems and their coupling to the environment. The course will be illustrated by examples in optics, transport, mechanics and magnetism and by numerical simulations Comsol. Goal: Complex fluids are mixtures of different materials and fluids.