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The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness. Fulda, Bernhard Press and Politics in the Weimar Republic. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Gellately, Robert Der "Generalplan Ost". Central European History.


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Social Outsiders in Nazi Germany. Ghaemi, Nassir New York: Penguin Publishing Group. Giblin, James Cross The Life and Death of Adolf Hitler. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. Goldhagen, Daniel New York: Knopf. Haffner, Sebastian The Meaning of Hitler. Hakim, Joy War, Peace, and All That Jazz.

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Adolf Hitler's wife's knickers and nightie sold for £6, to Brit buyer - Mirror Online

Hildebrand, Klaus The Foreign Policy of the Third Reich. London: Batsford. Hitler, Adolf []. Mein Kampf. Ralph Manheim. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Hitler, Adolf; Trevor-Roper, Hugh []. Hitler, Adolf [—]. Hitler's Table Talk, — London: Enigma. Jetzinger, Franz []. Hitler's Youth. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. Joachimsthaler, Anton []. London: Brockhampton Press. Kee, Robert Munich: The Eleventh Hour. London: Hamish Hamilton. Keegan, John London: Pimlico.

Keller, Gustav Kellogg, Michael Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Kershaw, Ian []. Hitler: — Hubris. Kershaw, Ian a []. London: Arnold. Kershaw, Ian b. Hitler, — Nemesis. New York; London: W. Kershaw, Ian Hitler: A Biography. The End: Hitler's Germany, —45 Paperback ed. London: Penguin. Koch, H. June The Historical Journal. Kolb, Eberhard []. The Weimar Republic. London; New York: Routledge. New York: Routledge.

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Hitler’s antisemitism. Why did he hate the Jews?

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Oxford: Clarendon Press. Mitcham, Samuel W. Why Hitler? Westport, Conn: Praeger. Amsterdam; New York: Rodopi. Murray, Williamson The Change in the European Balance of Power. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Murray, Williamson; Millett, Allan R. Naimark, Norman M. Nicholls, David Adolf Hitler: A Biographical Companion. University of North Carolina Press. Niewyk, Donald L. The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press.

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Hitler the Progressive

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Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk. Konstantin von Neurath Joachim von Ribbentrop. Wilhelm Frick Heinrich Himmler. Franz Seldte. Joseph Goebbels. Werner von Blomberg Wilhelm Keitel. President of Germany — Friedrich Ebert Paul von Hindenburg.

How did Hitler rise to power? - Alex Gendler and Anthony Hazard

The store was later ransacked during Kristallnacht in , then handed over to a non-Jewish family. Additional legislation restricted the number of Jewish students at schools and universities, limited Jews working in medical and legal professions, and revoked the licenses of Jewish tax consultants. By , Jewish actors were forbidden from performing in film or in the theater.

On September 15, , the Reichstag introduced the Nuremberg Laws, which defined a "Jew" as anyone with three or four grandparents who were Jewish, regardless of whether the person considered themselves Jewish or observed the religion. In , Hitler and his regime muted their Anti-Semitic rhetoric and actions when Germany hosted the Winter and Summer Olympic Games , in an effort to avoid criticism on the world stage and a negative impact on tourism.

After the Olympics, the Nazi persecution of Jews intensified with the continued "Aryanization" of Jewish businesses, which involved the firing of Jewish workers and takeover by non-Jewish owners. The Nazis continued to segregate Jews from German society, banning them from public school, universities, theaters, sports events and "Aryan" zones. Jewish doctors were also barred from treating "Aryan" patients. Jews were required to carry identity cards and, in the fall of , Jewish people had to have their passports stamped with a "J.

On November 9 and 10, , a wave of violent anti-Jewish pogroms swept Germany, Austria and parts of the Sudetenland. Nazis destroyed synagogues and vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses. Close to Jews were murdered. Called Kristallnacht , the "Night of Crystal" or the "Night of Broken Glass," referring to the broken window glass left in the wake of the destruction, it escalated the Nazi persecution of Jews to another level of brutality and violence. Almost 30, Jewish men were arrested and sent to concentration camps, signaling more horrors to come.

Hitler's eugenic policies also targeted children with physical and developmental disabilities, later authorizing a euthanasia program for disabled adults. His regime also persecuted homosexuals, arresting an estimated , men from to , some of whom were imprisoned or sent to concentration camps. At the camps, gay prisoners were forced to wear pink triangles to identify their homosexuality, which Nazis considered a crime and a disease. Between the start of World War II, in , and its end, in , Nazis and their collaborators were responsible for the deaths of at least 11 million noncombatants, including about six million Jews, representing two-thirds of the Jewish population in Europe.

As part of Hitler's "Final Solution," the genocide enacted by the regime would come to be known as the Holocaust. German police shooting women and children from the Mizocz Ghetto, October 14, Deaths and mass executions took place in concentration and extermination camps including Auschwitz -Birkenau, Bergen-Belsen, Dachau and Treblinka, among many others.

Other persecuted groups included Poles, communists, homosexuals, Jehovah's Witnesses and trade unionists. Prisoners were used as forced laborers for SS construction projects, and in some instances they were forced to build and expand concentration camps. They were subject to starvation, torture and horrific brutalities, including gruesome and painful medical experiments. Hitler probably never visited the concentration camps and did not speak publicly about the mass killings.

However, Germans documented the atrocities committed at the camps on paper and in films. In , Hitler, along with several other European leaders, signed the Munich Pact. The treaty ceded the Sudetenland districts to Germany, reversing part of the Versailles Treaty. As a result of the summit, Hitler was named Time magazine's Man of the Year for This diplomatic win only whetted his appetite for a renewed German dominance. In response, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. By July, Hitler ordered bombing raids on the United Kingdom, with the goal of invasion.

On June 22, , Hitler violated the non-aggression pact with Joseph Stalin , sending a massive army of German troops into the Soviet Union. The invading force seized a huge area of Russia before Hitler temporarily halted the invasion and diverted forces to encircle Leningrad and Kiev. The pause allowed the Red Army to regroup and conduct a counter-offensive attack, and the German advance was stopped outside Moscow in December Honoring the alliance with Japan, Hitler was now at war against the Allied powers, a coalition that included Britain, the world's largest empire, led by Prime Minister Winston Churchill ; the United States, the world's greatest financial power, led by President Franklin D.

Roosevelt ; and the Soviet Union, which had the world's largest army, commanded by Stalin. Initially hoping that he could play the Allies off of one another, Hitler's military judgment became increasingly erratic, and the Axis powers could not sustain his aggressive and expansive war. The German army also suffered defeats at the Battle of Stalingrad , seen as a turning point in the war, and the Battle of Kursk As a result of these significant setbacks, many German officers concluded that defeat was inevitable and that Hitler's continued rule would result in the destruction of the country.

Organized efforts to assassinate the dictator gained traction, and opponents came close in with the notorious July Plot , though it ultimately proved unsuccessful. By early , Hitler realized that Germany was going to lose the war. At midnight, going into April 29, , Hitler married his girlfriend, Eva Braun , in a small civil ceremony in his underground bunker. Around this time, Hitler was informed of the execution of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini.

He reportedly feared the same fate could befall him. Hitler committed suicide on April 30, , fearful of being captured by enemy troops. Hitler took a dose of cyanide and then shot himself in the head. Eva Braun is believed to have poisoned herself with cyanide at around the same time. Their bodies were carried to a bomb crater near the Reich Chancellery, where their remains were doused with gasoline and burned. Hitler was 56 years old at the time of his death. Berlin fell to Soviet troops on May 2, Five days later, on May 7, , Germany surrendered unconditionally to the Allies.

Hitler's political programs brought about a horribly destructive world war, leaving behind a devastated and impoverished Eastern and Central Europe, including Germany. His policies inflicted human suffering on an unprecedented scale and resulted in the death of tens of millions of people, including more than 20 million in the Soviet Union and six million Jews in Europe. Hitler's defeat marked the end of Germany's dominance in European history and the defeat of fascism. A new ideological global conflict, the Cold War , emerged in the aftermath of the devastating violence of World War II. We strive for accuracy and fairness.

If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! Sign up for the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. Joseph Goebbels served as minister of propaganda for the German Third Reich under Adolf Hitler—a position from which he spread the Nazi message.

Eva Braun was the mistress and later the wife of Adolf Hitler. Braun and Hitler killed themselves on April 30, , the day after their wedding—a decided alternative to falling into the hands of enemy troops. After World War II, he committed suicide to escape capture. He was condemned to hang as a war criminal in but took his own life instead. He was killed in Oskar Schindler was a German industrialist during World War II who sheltered approximately 1, Jews from the Nazis by employing them in his factories.