Ernest Trumpp and W.H. McLeod as scholars of Sikh History, religion, and culture

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There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. According to Singha, "Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood. But it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet. He is an illumined soul. The Sikh revelations include the words of non-Sikh bhagats , some who lived and died before the birth of Nanak, and whose teachings are part of the Sikh scriptures.

The roots of the Sikh tradition are, states Louis Fenech, perhaps in the Sant -tradition of India whose ideology grew to become the Bhakti tradition. The development of Sikhism was influenced by the Bhakti movement ; [64] [65] [66] and Vaishnawa Hinduism. Sri Chand , Guru Nanak's son was also a religious man, and continued his own commune of Sikhs.

His followers came to be known as the Udasi Sikhs, the first parallel sect of Sikhism that formed in Sikh history. Guru Angad, before joining Guru Nanak's commune, worked as a pujari priest and religious teacher centered around Hindu goddess Durga. Guru Amar Das became the third Sikh guru in at the age of He adhered to the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism for much of his life, before joining the commune of Guru Angad. He was a reformer, and discouraged veiling of women's faces a Muslim custom as well as sati a Hindu custom.

The collection of revenue from Sikhs through regional appointees helped Sikhism grow.


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This city grew and later became Amritsar — the holiest city of Sikhism. The choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. Guru Arjan is remembered in the Sikh for many things. He built the first Harimandir Sahib later to become the Golden Temple. In , he was tortured and killed by the Mughal emperor Jahangir , [] for refusing to convert to Islam. After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan, his son Guru Hargobind at age eleven became the sixth guru of the Sikhs and Sikhism dramatically evolved to become a political movement in addition to being religious.

The building of an armed Sikh militia began with Guru Hargobind. It is unclear how many years he served in prison, with different texts stating it to be between 2 and 12 years. In , Guru Hargobind named his grandson Har Rai as the guru. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan attempted political means to undermine the Sikh tradition, by dividing and influencing the succession.

Edited by Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech

Guru Hargobind rejected Dhir Mal, the later refused to give up the original version of the Adi Granth he had, and the Sikh community was divided. Guru Har Rai is famed to have met Dara Shikoh during a time Dara Shikoh and his younger brother Aurangzeb were in a bitter succession fight. He nominated his younger son Guru Har Krishan to succeed him in Aurangzeb responded by granting Ram Rai a jagir land grant. Ram Rai founded a town there and enjoyed Aurangzeb's patronage, the town came to be known as Dehradun, after Dehra referring to Ram Rai's shrine.

Sikhs who followed Ram Rai came to be known as Ramraiya Sikhs. No hymns composed by these three gurus are included in the Guru Granth Sahib. Tegh Bahadur resisted the forced conversions of Kashmiri Pandits [] and non-Muslims [] to Islam , and was publicly beheaded in on the orders of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi for refusing to convert to Islam. His body was cremated in Delhi, the head was carried secretively by Sikhs and cremated in Anandpur.

Guru Gobind Singh inaugurated the Khalsa the collective body of all initiated Sikhs as the Sikh temporal authority in the year It created a community that combines its spiritual purpose and goals with political and military duties. The Sikh Khalsa's rise to power began in the 17th century during a time of growing militancy against Mughal rule. Banda Singh advanced his army towards the main Muslim Mughal city of Sirhind and, following the instructions of the guru, punished all the culprits.

Soon after the invasion of Sirhind, while resting in his chamber after the Rehras prayer Guru Gobind Singh was stabbed by a Pathan assassin hired by Mughals. Gobind Singh killed the attacker with his sword. Though a European surgeon stitched the Guru's wound, the wound re-opened as the Guru tugged at a hard strong bow after a few days, causing profuse bleeding that led to Gobind Singh's death. The confederacy of Sikh warrior bands known as misls emerged, but these fought between themselves. Ranjit Singh achieved a series of military victories and created a Sikh Empire in The Sikh empire had its capital in Lahore , spread over almost , square miles , square kilometres comprising what is now northwestern Indian subcontinent.

The Sikh Empire entered into a treaty with the colonial British powers, with each side recognizing Sutlej River as the line of control and agreeing not to invade the other side. Ranjit Singh had failed to establish a lasting structure for Sikh government or stable succession, and the Sikh Empire rapidly declined after his death. Factions divided the Sikhs, and led to Anglo-Sikh wars. The British easily defeated the confused and demoralised Khalsa forces , then disbanded them into destitution. The Singh Sabha movement , a movement to revitalize Sikhism, also saw the resurgence of the Khalsa after their defeat by the British in the Anglo-Sikh wars , [] and the subsequent decline and corruption of Sikh institutions during colonial rule, and the proselytization of other faith groups in the Punjab.

The last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire Duleep Singh converted to Christianity in , a controversial but influential event in Sikh history. Along with his conversion, and after Sikh Empire had been dissolved and the region made a part of the colonial British Empire, proselytising activities of Christians , Brahmo Samajis , Arya Samaj , Muslim Anjuman-i-Islamia and Ahmadiyah sought to convert the Sikhs in northwestern Indian subcontinent into their respective faiths.

The first meeting of the movement was in the Golden Temple, Amritsar in , and it was largely launched by the Sanatan Sikhs , Gianis, priests, and granthis. Sanatan Sikhs led by Khem Singh Bedi — who claimed to be a direct descendant of Guru Nanak, Avtar Singh Vahiria and others supported a more inclusive approach which considered Sikhism as a reformed tradition of Hinduism, while Tat Khalsa campaigned for an exclusive approach to the Sikh identity, disagreeing with Sanatan Sikhs and seeking to modernize Sikhism.

Sikhs participated and contributed to the decades-long Indian independence movement from the colonial rule in the first half of the 20th century. This event, states Banga, was a watershed event in Sikh history. According to Banga and other scholars, the Sikhs had strongly opposed the Muslim League demands and saw it as "perpetuation of Muslim domination" and anti-Sikh policies in what just a years before was a part of the Sikh Empire. During the discussions with the colonial authorities, Tara Singh emerged as an important leader who campaigned to prevent the partition and for the recognition of Sikhs as the third community.

When partition was announced, the newly created line divided the Sikh population into two-halves. The Sikhs suffered organized violence and riots against them in West Pakistan, and Sikhs moved en masse to the Indian side leaving behind their property and the sacred places of Sikhism.

This reprisals on Sikhs were not one sided, because as Sikhs entered the Indian side, the Muslims in East Punjab experienced reprisals and they moved to West Pakistan. The Sikhs were the economic elite and wealthiest in West Punjab, with them having the largest representation in West Punjab's aristocracy, nearly Gurdwaras and educational institutions that served the interests of the Sikhs.

The Muslim League rejected this approach, demanding that entire Punjab should be granted to Pakistan. Between March and August , a series of riots, arson, plunder of Sikh property, assassination of Sikh leaders, and killings in Jhelum districts, Rawalpindi, Attock and other places made Tara Singh call the situation in Punjab as "civil war", while Lord Mountbatten stated "civil war preparations were going on". The riots had triggered the early waves of migration in April, with some 20, people leaving northwest Punjab and moving to Patiala.

The Sikh leaders made desperate petitions, but all religious communities were suffering in the political turmoil. When the partition line was formally announced in August , the violence was unprecedented, with Sikhs being one of the most affected religious community both in terms of deaths, as well as property loss, injury, trauma and disruption. Estimates range between , and 2 million deaths of Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims. The partition created the "largest foot convoy of refugees recorded in [human] history, stretching over kilometer long", states Banga, with nearly , people consisting of mostly "distraught, suffering, injured and angry Sikhs".

Sikh and Hindu refugees from Pakistan flooded into India, Muslim refugees from India flooded into Pakistan, each into their new homeland. The early s witnessed some Sikh groups seeking an independent nation named Khalistan carved out from India and Pakistan. The Golden Temple and Akal Takht were occupied by various militant groups in Numerous soldiers, civilians and militants died in the cross fire.

Within days of the Operation Bluestar, some 2, Sikh soldiers in India mutinied and attempted to reach Amritsar to liberate the Golden Temple. The assassination triggered the anti-Sikh riots. The Sikhs and their neighbors, for most part, ignored attempts to provoke riots and communal strife. Estimates state that Sikhism has some 25 million followers worldwide. Sikhism was founded in northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan. Some of the Gurus were born near Lahore and in other parts of Pakistan. Prior to , in British India, millions of Sikhs lived in what later became Pakistan.

During the partition, Sikhs and Hindus left the newly created Muslim-majority Pakistan and moved to Hindu-majority India, while Muslims in India left and moved to Pakistan. The Sikhs in Pakistan, like others in the region, have been "rocked by an Islamist insurgency for more than a decade". Sikh sects are sub-traditions within Sikhism that believe in an alternate lineage of Gurus, or have a different interpretation of the Sikh scriptures, or believe in following a living guru, or other concepts that differ from the orthodox Khalsa Sikhs.

Later on Ramraiya sect grew in Dehradun with the patronage of Aurangzeb. Some of these sects were financially and administratively supported by the Mughal rulers in the hopes of gaining a more favorable and compliant citizenry. After the collapse of Mughal Empire, and particularly during the rule of Ranjit Singh, Udasi Sikhs protected Sikh shrines, preserved the Sikh scripture and rebuilt those that were desecrated or destroyed during the Muslim—Sikh wars.

However, Udasi Sikhs kept idols and images inside these Sikh temples. All these sects differ from Khalsa orthodox Sikhs in their beliefs and practices, such as continuing to solemnize their weddings around fire and being strictly vegetarian. The Nirankari sect though unorthodox was influential in shaping the views of Tat Khalsa and the contemporary era Sikh beliefs and practices.

According to Surinder Jodhka, the state of Punjab with a Sikh majority has the "largest proportion of scheduled caste population in India". Although decried by Sikhism, Sikhs have practiced a caste system. The system, along with untouchability, has been more common in rural parts of Punjab. The landowning dominant Sikh castes, states Jodhka, "have not shed all their prejudices against the lower castes or dalits ; while dalits would be allowed entry into the village gurdwaras they would not be permitted to cook or serve langar.

According to Jodhka, due to economic mobility in contemporary Punjab, castes no longer mean an inherited occupation nor are work relations tied to a single location. Despite being very small in numbers, the mercantile Khatri and Arora castes wield considerable influence within the Sikh community. Other common Sikh castes include Sainis , Ramgarhias artisans , Ahluwalias formerly brewers , Kambojs rural caste , Labanas , Kumhars and the two Dalit castes, known in Sikh terminology as the Mazhabis the Chuhras and the Ravidasias the Chamars.

Sikhism is the fifth-largest amongst the major world religions , and one of the youngest. Large communities of Sikhs migrate to the neighboring states such as Indian State of Haryana which is home to the second largest Sikh population in India with 1. Sikh migration to Canada began in the 19th century and led to the creation of significant Sikh communities, predominantly in South Vancouver , British Columbia , Surrey, British Columbia , and Brampton, Ontario. Today temples, newspapers, radio stations, and markets cater to these large, multi-generational Indo-Canadian groups.

Sikh festivals such as Vaisakhi and Bandi Chhor are celebrated in those Canadian cities by the largest groups of followers in the world outside the Punjab. These communities developed as Sikhs migrated out of Punjab to fill in gaps in imperial labour markets. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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For the region of India, see Sikkim. Sikh gurus. Select revered saints. General topics. Main article: Ik Onkar. See also: Bhakti. Main article: Sikh gurus. Main articles: Sikhism and Hinduism and Islam and Sikhism. Main article: Dasam Granth. Main article: History of Sikhism. Main article: Singh Sabha Movement. Main article: Sikh. Main article: Sects of Sikhism.

Further information: Sikhism in India , Sikh diaspora , and Sikhism by country. Further information: Prohibitions in Sikhism and Diet in Sikhism. The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. India: Oxford University Press. Sahib Singh Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 29 May Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations. Atlantic Publishers. Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi Wallingford, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan.

Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries.

Historiography (Sikhism)

McGill Queen University Press. Retrieved 19 June Chelsea House, Philadelphia. Sussex Academic Press. Sikhism:Religion in focus. Black Rabbit Books. Retrieved 7 August The Sikhs.

Reading | Sikhism

Alfred A Knopf Publishing. Pages The Making of Sikh Scripture. United States: Oxford University Press. London: Kuperard. Sikhism rejects the view that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly regarding Absolute Truth. Sikhism rejects the practice of converting people to other religious traditions. Reichberg; Henrik Syse Cambridge University Press. Singha The Encyclopedia of Sikhism over Entries. SUNY Press.

Concept Publishing Company. University of Chicago Press.

Ernest Trumpp And W H Mcleod As Scholars Of Sikh History, Religion And Culture

Fenech The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Journal of the American Oriental Society. History of Sikh Gurus Retold: — Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Abhinav Publications. Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 9 April Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. Understanding Sikhism, the Research Journal 2 : 3. Retrieved 10 November Agree to Differ. The Hans India.

Retrieved 10 July Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions. Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse ed. Retrieved 15 June You are the One True Lord and Master of all the other beings, of so many worlds. Searches in Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. Sikhism and Indian Civilization. Discovery Publishing House. Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian: Singh, Japji, , Hemkunt Press, p. In Sikh religion the word 'Guru' does not denote a teacher, or an expert or a guide in human body.

Janmeja Meji August The Sikh Review. Archived from the original PDF on 3 December Retrieved 29 November Definitions of Sikhism" PDF. Understanding Sikhism — the Research Journal. Archived from the original PDF on 4 December Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. The Sikhs of the Punjab. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Dorling Kindersley. Wayne April Bibliotheca Sacra. The Encyclopedia of Sikhism.

The predominant ideology of the Sant parampara in turn corresponds in many respects to the much wider devotional Bhakti tradition in northern India. New Delhi, India: Hemkunt Press. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House. Kohli The Sikh and Sikhism. Searches in Sikhism First ed. New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Sikhism Today.

Bloomsbury Publishing. Raj South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Re-imagining South Asian Religions. Brill Academic. Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern Editors: K. Sundararajan, Bithika Mukerji. English: Motilal Banarsidass. Colors of Truth, Religion Self and Emotions. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. Scott English: Atlantic Publishers. Columbia University Press.

Celestial Gems. Sikh Publishing House; First edition. Sikh Music: History, Text, and Praxis. Sikhism, Origin and Development. King; J. Brockington Orient Blackswan. It concludes by asking and answering the question presented in the title, the response to which is of relevance to Sikhs all over the world.

Historical dictionary of Sikhism by W. H McLeod Book 13 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Sikhism by W. The A to Z of Sikhism by W. H McLeod 3 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide "There is more to Sikhism than the distinctive dress of its adherents: the emergence of Guru Nanak, the founder, and his long line of successors; the precepts, many related to liberation through the divine name or nam; a particularly turbulent history in which the Sikhs have fought to affirm their beliefs and resist external domination; and, more recently, the dispersion of Sikhs from the Punjab throughout the rest of India and on to Europe and the Americas.

With this emigration, Sikhism has become considerably less exotic but hardly better known to outsiders. The A to Z of Sikhism provides a brief introduction, a chronology, and a dictionary containing several hundred entries that present the Gurus and other leaders, trace Sikhism's complex history, expound some of its precepts and concepts, describe many of its rites and rituals, and explain the meaning of numerous Sikh expressions.

Exploring Sikhism : aspects of Sikh identity, culture and thought by W. H McLeod Book 18 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide McLeod's interest embraces all aspects of the life and beliefs of the Sikh people, and is of particular value as an outsider's research into a living religious faith. H McLeod Book 10 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide.

The Sants : studies in a devotional tradition of India Book 10 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Sikhism and history Book 3 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide Contributed papers presented at a conference. Popular Sikh art by W. Sikhs of the Khalsa : a history of the Khalsa rahit by W. H McLeod Book 8 editions published between and in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide On the development of Sikh ethics.

Punjabis in New Zealand : a history of Punjabi migration by W. Sikhs and Sikhism by W. The Sikhs of the Punjab by W. H McLeod Book 6 editions published between and in English and held by 48 WorldCat member libraries worldwide. Audience Level. Related Identities. Associated Subjects.

Hewat MacLeod, William